Forex trading for beginners: a step-by-step guide
Margin in forex or Margin in trading |

What exactly do you want to gain from Forex trading?

Many individuals will think of “quick money” or “immediate riches,” but this isn’t the case. Of sure, money can be earned – that’s why Forex trading is the world’s largest market – but success isn’t guaranteed, and it doesn’t happen immediately. Forex market requires expertise, patience, education, and effort to be a good long-term trader.

That’s why, before you ever consider making your first forex transaction, you should familiarize yourself with the fundamentals of the forex market.

We’ll go over all of the forex fundamentals in this post and provide you with relevant, actionable, and reliable information on:

  • Beginners’ guide to forex trading
  • Terminology used in the forex market
  • Mastering the art of forex trading
  • Understanding of Forex trading at a higher level
  • To learn how to trade forex, you’ll need to continue your studies.

Beginners’ guide to forex trading

Let’s get started! Understanding the fundamentals of the forex market will provide you with a firm basis on which to build your abilities, trading techniques, and even strive toward a successful Forex trading adventure – so let’s get started!

What is forex trading and how does it work?

The Forex market is often regarded as the world’s largest and most liquid financial market. According to the most recent Bank for International Settlements Triennial Central Bank Survey of the Foreign Exchange Market, the average daily FX transaction is now estimated to be over $6.6 trillion.

If you’re new to the markets and want to learn more about what forex trading is and how it works, one thing you’ll notice right away is that you trade currencies in pairs. Unlike stock trading, where you purchase and sell the same stock, forex trading involves selling one currency and buying another.

The greatest way to show this is when you’re planning a trip to another country. You’ll need to purchase the local currency of the place you’re visiting, therefore you’ll need the currency of your home country to do so.

If you live in the United States and plan to go to Europe, you will use the US Dollar to purchase the Euro (EUR) (USD). The symbol EUR/USD is used to symbolize this transaction.

Chart showing the average daily trading volule for the forex market against the London, New York and Tokyo stock exchange.

What is the foreign exchange market (Forex Trading)?

The buying and selling of currencies is known as forex trading, and the forex market is where it all takes place. Forex brokers, investors, banks, central banks, investment management businesses, commercial enterprises, and hedge funds make up the forex market. The Forex market has a large number of players.

The foreign exchange market is made up of two levels of liquidity: a worldwide network of brokers and computers from all over the world, and a global network of brokers and computers from all over the world.

1st level

The major banks in the world with substantial forex departments make up the top tier of liquidity providers in the foreign exchange market. These huge financial institutions are in charge of generating price quotations for all currency pairings as well as creating markets for forex brokers and retail clients that utilize ECN platforms.

These tier 1 liquidity providers will supply pricing to market maker brokers, who will then mark up the price for their retail clients based on the initial liquidity providers’ prices. The wide differential between the buy and sell prices on currency pairings, as well as fees on both sides of the trades, will be the primary sources of revenue for these firms.

Deutsche Bank, Citibank, HSBC, Barclays, BNP Paribas, Citadel, Royal Bank of Scotland, Morgan Stanley, and Goldman Sachs are some examples of tier 1 liquidity providers.

2nd tier

The interbank Forex market is where the second tier of liquidity works. This tier acts as market makers, providing retail clients with currency pair pricing, and most forex brokers operate as full-fledged market makers in this arena.

Market makers are the middlemen that connect regular investors with tier 1 liquidity providers. Their presence in the market increases liquidity, which results in reduced trading costs, smaller spreads, and a higher number of trades for traders.

What is the Forex market and how does it work?

Trading in the forex market involves betting on the rise or fall of a currency pair in the hopes of making a profit, which can occasionally result in a loss. There are also market players who are just in the market for the purpose of hedging, i.e. they are not looking to make a profit.

Traders used to have to do business through a conventional broker, but today’s internet trading platforms make it simple to invest in foreign exchange from anywhere in the globe. To place a trade, all you need is a computer and access to the internet, which you can do 24 hours a day, 5 days a week.

There are three sorts of Forex markets in which to trade:

 The foreign exchange spot market

The currency spot market is the world’s largest – and you may have been a part of it without even realizing it. Anyone who visits a bank to exchange currencies is participating in the forex spot market.

 The foreign exchange futures market

Futures contracts include the purchase or sale of a currency pair at a predetermined time, date, and size. The contracts are traded on futures exchanges all around the world in this market. These are legally binding contracts that let the seller to take a chance that the currency will fall in value on the spot market before the contract expires.

 The foreign exchange forwards market

The forwards market is a transaction that takes place between a consumer and a bank, or from one bank to another. Unlike futures contracts, which have set attributes such as size and age, forwards contracts are flexible and customized to meet the needs of the trader.

Who is in charge of overseeing the currency market?

Regulating a worldwide market that trades 24 hours a day, five days a week appears to be a monumental task. There is no worldwide centralized authority that governs the currency trading market because of the magnitude of the task. A collection of regulatory authorities from several of the world’s most powerful nations control forex by establishing criteria that all brokers operating under their jurisdiction must follow.

Country Regulatory body
Australia ASIC – Australian Securities and Investments Commission
Canada IIROC – Investment Industry Regulatory Organisation of Canada
Cyprus CySec – Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission
Germany BaFIN – The Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht
Japan FSA – Financial Services Agency
New Zealand FMA – Financial Markets Authority
Singapore MAS – The Monetary Authority of Singapore
South Africa FSCA – Financial Sector Conduct Authority of South Africa
United Kingdom FCA – Financial Conduct Authority
United States CFTC – Commodities and Futures Trading Commission

 What causes currency prices to fluctuate?

Prices of trade products, especially forex pairs, are continually shifting and altering in today’s interconnected and globalized market.

Trading volume and transactions in the Forex markets are constantly influenced by supply and demand, and the larger the demand for a currency, the higher its price will fluctuate. However, there are several more factors that might influence currency pair pricing.

Here are some of the most important things to keep in mind while trading foreign exchange:

Central bank decisions – Central banks all around the world are in charge of determining interest rates for their respective countries. Traders are often drawn to currencies with higher interest rates than other currencies while trading in the forex market. If you wish to trade the currency markets, you need pay attention to the major central banks, which include:

  • US Federal Reserve 
  • Bank of England (BoE)
  • Bank of Canada (BoC)
  • European Central Bank (ECB)
  • Reserve Bank of Australian (RBA)
  • Bank of Japan (BoJ)
  • Swiss National Bank (SNB)
  • Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ)

Economic data – The movement of currency pairings is influenced by employment data, GDP levels, inflation, business and consumer emotions, and so on. To stay on top of significant economic data releases, keep an eye on the economic calendar and market movements on your online trading platform.

Forex trading time zones — It’s general knowledge that trading volumes and activity in the Japan/Asia time zone can be weak or slow during market open. When the UK/Europe session begins, trading volumes and activities typically increase, and liquidity peaks near the close of the UK and the start of the US session. Due to the time overlap of these main financial centres, the London and New York sessions are frequently the most busy.

Some currencies are more liquid during specific forex market hours, such as the JPY during the Tokyo session or the GBP during the London session.

Geopolitical factors — War, political crises, global unrest, and other geopolitical events can all have an influence on the foreign currency markets. When there is a lot of uncertainty in the markets, some currencies do well, while others do poorly.

 Hours of the forex market

The worldwide currency market is often known as the “never-sleeping market.” This is due to the fact that forex markets run on a 24-hour, 5-day cycle that encompasses three major forex centers: Japan/Asia, the United Kingdom/Europe, and the United States (North America). As a result, you may trade forex nearly any time of day from anywhere in the globe as long as you have access to an online trading platform and a stable internet connection. Check out our article on currency market hours and the table below for a complete overview.

Table of the global forex market hours

What are the most traded currency pairs on the forex market?

While the global Forex market has hundreds of forex pairs, there are five primary Forex groups to be aware of since they tend to be the most liquid and actively traded currency pairs.

 Majors in the forex market

The forex majors are the most widely traded currency pairings, accounting for over 85% of all Forex market transactions. Forex majors are associated with the world’s most powerful and stable economies, such the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, Europe, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.

The following are the seven major Forex markets:

  • EUR/USD – this symbol denotes the exchange rate of the Euro versus the US dollar.
  • USD/JPY – this symbol denotes the exchange rate between the US dollar and the Japanese yen.
  • GBP/USD – this symbol depicts the British Pound Sterling in relation to the US dollar.
  • USD/CHF – this symbol denotes the exchange rate of the US dollar against the Swiss Franc.
  • USD/CAD – this symbol symbolizes the exchange rate between the US dollar and the Canadian dollar.
  • AUD/USD — the Australian currency vs the US dollar is represented by this ticker.
  • NZD/USD — the New Zealand currency vs the US dollar is represented by this ticker.

 Minors in the forex market (or forex crosses)

The term “forex minors” refers to currency pairs that do not involve the US dollar. You may have noticed that the US dollar is always featured in the pair in the forex majors category. The forex crossings avoid the use of the US currency. The following are some of the most important forex minors:

  • EUR/CAD – this symbol denotes the exchange rate between the Euro and the Canadian dollar.
  • EUR/GBP – The Euro is represented by this ticker when compared to the British Pound Sterling.
  • EUR/JPY is a symbol for the Euro versus the Japanese Yen.
  • EUR/AUD – this symbol denotes the exchange rate between the Euro and the Australian dollar.
  • GBP/AUD — The British Pound Sterling vs the Australian Dollar is represented by this ticker.
  • GBP/JPY – The British Pound Sterling is compared to the Japanese Yen in this ticker.
  • GBP/CAD – The British Pound Sterling is compared to the Canadian Dollar in this ticker.
  • AUD/CAD — the Australian currency vs the Canadian dollar is represented by this ticker.
  • AUD/CHF — the Australian dollar vs the Swiss Franc is represented by this ticker.
  • AUD/JPY — the Australian dollar vs the Japanese yen is represented by this ticker.

 Exotic currency pairs

Exotic currencies are currencies that are thinly traded and have limited liquidity and transaction volumes. These currencies are frequently linked with emerging markets or developing economies, and they are not widely traded or in high demand. The following are some of the most well-known exotic currencies:

  • Thai Baht
  • Turkish Lira
  • Danish Krone
  • South African Rand
  • Swedish Krona

forex trading - Trade - trading - Forex Market

 Currencies of commodity blocs

Commodity bloc currencies refer to a set of currencies from natural resource-rich nations such as Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. The price fluctuations in commodities markets frequently influence this FX group. Whether you trade forex, commodities, or CFDs, it’s a good idea to keep an eye on the correlations and price fluctuations of the commodity bloc of currencies and the commodities that impact them.

 Currencies that are considered safe havens

Although there is no official or formal FX group, a few currencies are regarded as “safe haven” currencies when trading the foreign currency markets. The Japanese Yen (JPY), the Pound Sterling (GBP), the US dollar (USD), the Euro (EUR), and the Swiss Franc (CHF) are all safe haven currencies (CHF).

Why are you looking for a safe haven? Traders consider these currencies to be stable, and they will most likely maintain their value under tumultuous market conditions when compared to other currencies. Currency in this group will draw greater trading activity, similar to gold, which is regarded a safe haven asset. This is especially true when market volatility is high.

Terminology used in the forex market

Now that you’ve completed Part 1 of our forex trading for beginners series and have a basic understanding of how the forex market works, it’s time to brush up on the frequent forex terms you’ll encounter.

 Forex broker

A broker (or brokerage) is a person or company who facilitates trades between a trader and an exchange. Brokers come in a variety of shapes and sizes, but at their heart, they serve as a middleman between a buyer and a seller.

The primary purpose of brokers is to give you quick access to the forex market. As a result, the most significant benefit of using a local forex broker is that they will be familiar with the market and will be able to adapt and respond quickly to any changes.

But don’t just go with any broker. There are dangers of scammers, so do your homework and find a reliable broker with a license, good ratings, and a significant community to verify validity.

 What is a base currency and a quote currency?

Currency unit prices, often known as currency pairings in the forex market, are used by forex traders. The base currency (also known as the transaction currency) is the first currency in the pair, while the quote currency (also known as the counter currency) is the second currency in the pair.

The base currency tells you how much of the quote currency you’ll need to buy one unit of the base currency. The Euro is the base currency in the EUR/USD currency pair, while the United States Dollar is the quote currency. If the EUR/USD exchange rate is 1.1302, that means that a single Euro would cost $1.1302 USD.

 In forex, what is a pip?

The difference in value between two currencies is represented by a pip. The EUR/USD, for example, has changed by 0.0001 or one pip from 1.2250 to 1.2251.

A tick is comparable to a pip, however it may not accurately measure every increment. For example, a tick on one instrument may be monitored in 0.0001 increments, whereas another might be measured in 0.25 increments. A good approach to remember this is to think of a tick as the smallest increment that an instrument may move in.

 What is spread in forex?

Spreads relate to the price differential between the currencies you’re buying and selling – the ‘ask’ and ‘bid’ price – while trading the currency market. The spread size is an important factor to consider when making trading decisions because it can mean the difference between making a profit, a smaller profit, or even losing money.

In technical terms, the spread is the fee you pay the FX broker to complete the transaction: the tighter the spread, the lower the fee. Another thing to keep in mind is that the wider the spread, the more the price has to change in order for a transaction to make a profit or loss. As a result, traders choose brokers who have low or tight spreads on a constant basis.

 What is forex leverage?

Leverage in trading refers to the use of only a portion of your trading capital to open a deal. In fact, this implies that you don’t need a large amount of money to get started — as little as $10 in your trading account, along with proper leverage, may get you started.

At Marmara FX , you may trade with up to 500:1 leverage (depending on your trading jurisdiction), which means that for every $1 in your trading account, you can place a position worth up to $500.

While this increases your chances of making a lot of money in a short period of time, keep in mind that larger leverage also increases your chances of losing money if the trade goes against you.

As a newbie, you won’t want to trade with such high leverage levels right immediately since the danger is too large in comparison to your market understanding and trading abilities. Instead, you could choose to trade micro or mini positions to limit your risk:

  • Micro – $1,000 (0.01 lot)
  • Mini – $10,000 (0.1 lot)
  • Full lot – $100,000 (1 lot)

Use a demo trading account and make several test trades to get a sense of how this works in practice.

forex trading - Trade - trading - Forex Market |

 What is the definition of forex margin?

In forex trading, margin is utilized to allow a trader to take positions with a bigger value than the money in their trading account. Initial margin and variation margin are the two most important margin words to understand.

Initial margin is the bare minimum required to open a trade, whereas variation margin is calculated depending on the current value of all open positions. Learn more about margin trading and how it works.

 The difference between long and short positions

Traders that go “long” on a currency pair buy the base currency first and then sell the quotation currency. We would buy the US dollar and sell the Japanese yen in the same USD/JPY currency combination as before.

If you wish to take a short position in forex, you sell the US dollar and purchase the Japanese Yen. To put it another way, long denotes a purchase and short denotes a sale.

Bull Market Bear Market |

Markets can be bullish or bearish.

A bull market is a word used in investing to describe when conditions are favorable and prices are rising. When it comes to investing money in the market, bullish markets indicate that investors have more confidence and are willing to take more risk.

When conditions are considered unfavourable and prices are declining, it is referred to be a bear market. In bearish markets, the downward trend is caused to investors selling their assets and attempting to re-enter the market when they believe it has reached its high.

 The most commonly used chart types in forex tradingEconomic Calendar | Marmara FX

When it comes to analyzing the forex market, there are many different types of charts to choose from. The trading strategy or kind of analysis will generally choose which chart to utilize. See our post on how to interpret forex charts for a more in-depth look at these charts.

 Line graphs

Line charts are the most straightforward to comprehend. It simply depicts the closing price for the specified time period, which is usually depicted by a continuous curving line connecting dots that reflect price changes over specific time intervals.

Line chart in MetaTrader 4

Line charts provide a clear, simplified perspective of the current market condition and are ideal for those who want to see where the market is headed quickly.

Bar graphs
Bar charts (also known as OHLC charts) are a more advanced version of line charts that provide data on the Open, High, Low, and Close prices (thus the acronym).

Candlestick chart in MetaTrader 4 Charts of candlesticks

Although candlestick charts appear to be complex at first glance, they are actually rather simple to understand.

Candlesticks symbolize four major pricing points throughout the course of a certain time period. This time frame may be configured to 1 minute, 5 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, daily, weekly, monthly, and so on.

If the ending price is greater than the beginning price for that time period, the main body of the candle will be green (or empty) (i.e. the price has increased). The price has lowered over time if the body is colored red (or filled with black). Reading candlestick charts is the first step before using more complex analytical tools like those employed by many successful traders.

Mastering the art of forex trading

Forex trading usually requires a currency pair, so you’re basically swapping one currency for another when you trade forex. If you trade long EUR/USD, for example, you are purchasing EUR and selling USD.

The Benefits of Forex Trading

Because it is the world’s largest traded market with a massive daily trading volume, the forex market has numerous distinct advantages over other markets, including:

  • High liquidity
  • Buy and sell the market using leverage
  • 24 hours, 5 days a week
  • The costs of transactions are low
  • Profit by going long or short
  • Being able to hedge with forex

To learn more about the forex market’s unique qualities, see our article 17 Benefits of Forex Trading.

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Forex trading expenses

Trading, like any other business, takes some initial cash to get started. Similarly, just because you put money into a firm doesn’t ensure that you’ll generate more money.

However, one of the advantages of trading forex on the worldwide market is that you may get started with a modest amount of money. This is especially essential if you’re new to trading and want to try out different techniques or learn more about the markets without having to invest a lot of money.

However, you should be aware that the quantity of trading cash you have at your disposal will influence the manner you trade and assist decide the feasibility of your long-term plan.

 How much money do you require to begin trading forex?

Trading forex with any degree of success takes more than just money. You’ll need patience, talent, emotional control, and the capacity to learn from your errors (yes, you’ll make them!). When it comes to the bottom line, however, there are a few key factors to consider, such as leverage, spreads, and other trading charges.

Starting with as little as $50 or even $10 in your trading account is a good place to start, but we recommend starting with at least $500.

 Are there any extra fees associated with trading?

Commission costs are either waived or included into the spread price you pay on an individual deal in typical forex and commodity trading. This contributes to the transparency of the trading process.

Certain products, such as futures, do, however, include additional “swap” or “rollover” costs because of their longer periods. If you decide to trade these sorts of items, be sure you understand what additional expenses, if any, you’ll have to pay on open positions.

forex trading - Trade - trading - Forex Market |

What are the most important forex trading instruments?

When you’re initially starting out in forex trading, the most vital instrument is research. To establish your own distinctive trading technique, you must grasp all of the ins and outs of the market.

Understanding of FX trading at a higher level

Let’s dig into the weeds of forex trading and see how a little more information may convert a pastime into a second source of income.

When trading forex, risk control is essential.

Risk is inherent in trading any market, including the FX markets. That’s why the majority of the world’s professional and successful traders consider risk management to be one of the most crucial aspects of their trading success.

One important rule of thumb to remember, especially for rookie traders, is to never risk more than 1% of your trading money while learning.

Let’s go through the top five elements of a risk management approach that can aid your FX trading.

  • Know your personal risk profile: Do you take a lot of chances? Do you like to take smaller, more measured chances? In order to manage forex trading, you must first understand your individual risk profile or risk appetite. You may alter your trading strategy to suit your level of risk-taking.
  • Position sizing: The amount of money you put into each transaction can have a significant influence on your risk exposure. The larger your position size, the greater your chances of winning as well as losing. It’s also true in the other direction. The smaller the position size, the easier the trade will be to manage, however it will have a lower potential for wins and losses. The important thing to remember is that you must control your position sizes in order to maintain your trading funds over time.
  • Stop loss: Modern trading systems allow you to define stop loss levels, which is one of its advantages. This is a fixed price at which your transaction will finish automatically to avoid further losses. Setting a stop loss for each trade is one of the most effective strategies to manage trading risks, so take advantage of it.
  • Leverage: You may decide and pre-set the degree of leverage you wish to employ for forex trading, similar to stop loss. When you’re just starting out as a forex trader, you might wish to keep your leverage low. Keep in mind that leverage has both a positive and negative side, since it may compound both your winnings and losses.
  • Your own trading mindset: It’s just as crucial to understand your own risk profile as it is to understand your own trading psyche. When it comes to significant gains and losses in the markets, this means being honest with yourself. You will be in a wonderful position to prepare for various eventualities if you understand your own psychology and how you cope with various market conditions.

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Trading techniques for forex trading

Now that you’ve grasped the notion of forex trading and comprehended how the market operates, it’s time to discuss forex trading methods.

Everyone takes a different approach, but there are several tactics that have a lot in common. Here are a few prominent forex trading methods to consider:

  • Trend trading is a straightforward and widely utilized method that entails spotting prospective trends and getting on board to profit from momentum. It’s usually a medium- to long-term approach.
  • Range trading is finding important support and resistance levels where price is more likely to bounce off than break through. It is particularly useful during periods of consolidation when there is no discernible trend.
  • Swing trading is a method in which traders try to forecast when currencies will hit their peaks and bottoms, and then take long and short positions appropriately.
  • Position trading entails keeping a position for an extended length of time, ranging from weeks to years. Technical and fundamental analysis can be used by position traders.
  • Trading on the same day: Position trading is on the other end of the spectrum, since deals may just last a few minutes or hours and will be completed before markets shut.
  • Scalp trading is a method in which traders profit from little price fluctuations. They may only be able to retain postures for a few seconds.
    Scalping, day trading, swing trading, and position trading are examples of forex trading tactics.

 Technical analysis

Technical analysis is the application of a set of techniques to search for patterns in a chart that might forecast future behavior. Technical analysis presupposes that all of the relevant information about a currency pair has already been priced in. As a result, the idea holds that if a pattern has been repeated in the past, recognizing it might aid a trader in predicting the near future.

 Fundamental analysis

Fundamental analysis is when an FX trader analyses the fundamental economic or policy factors that influence the price of a currency. The primary assumption behind the research is that if the underlying economy of a currency is expected to do better than that of other countries, the currency’s price will rise, and vice versa.

Continuing education in the field of forex trading

Forex trading necessitates ongoing education and learning. As markets change and provide unlimited trading chances, you as a trader must be prepared with the correct trading tools, knowledge, and tactics to take advantage of any trading opportunity.

The availability of a wide range of free online education and knowledge at your fingertips is one of the many benefits of today’s technology-driven society.

At Marmara FX , we provide you with access to a wide selection of trading materials to help you improve your trading abilities. All of our training tools, including as video lessons, webinars, online trading courses, eBooks, and trade manuals, are available to you.

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  What is the best way to interpret an economic calendar in Forex trading?

When you first start trading forex, the economic calendar will be a valuable tool to use into your trading approach. It’s critical to learn how to read the economic calendar correctly if you want to be successful.

Follow the most significant releases and international events on the forex calendar to increase your chances of success in forex trading. By default, the calendar will display all planned economic news and events from across the world. You may pick an unique date range for the duration you want to study, as well as certain market conditions, volatility levels, and nations to track.

Practice is the best method to learn.

There is no end to how much you can learn about trading, and it might be difficult to know where to begin, but there is no alternative for doing it yourself!

Marmara FX provides a free demo trading account that allows you to practice trading with virtual cash without having to trade real money.

You may trade 140+ forex and CFD products – including metals, commodities, cryptocurrencies, and indices – with spreads as low as 0.0 pips and leverage up to 1:500, just like in our real trading account (depending on the jurisdiction you are trading in).

You’ve just finished reading the most complete beginner’s guide to Forex trading. 

If you have any question please don’t hesitate to

CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 71.58% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.